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  人工智慧醫療刑事責任風險之探討 張麗卿

本文摘要
人工智慧為醫學的發展帶來嶄新的活力。傳統醫療模式已經無法滿足社會進程發展的需求,因此人工智慧成為連接未來醫學模式的橋樑,人類醫師與智慧醫療共存的局面,已然出現!隨著人工智慧醫療在臨床醫療的投入,勢必大幅改變未來病人與醫師之間的互動關係,並衍生諸多法律問題。
雖然目前的人工智慧醫療,仍只是輔助的角色。醫師與人工智慧醫療的互動,有明顯的主從關係。理論上,醫師依照自己的專業歷練,不能完全依賴智慧醫療系統。但是,在智慧醫療如火如荼應用的情境下,醫療生態已經產生重大變化,並可能衍生許多法律爭議,醫師的確會面臨各種法律的風險。在各種法律風險之中,從醫師的立場看,可能引發的刑法風險更加受到重視。本文說明人工智慧醫療的運用的領域及其特色,提出掌握使用智慧醫療時應該遵守的「智慧醫療倫理準則」,並用以討論因為違反倫理準則可能存在的刑法風險以及應對之道。
關鍵詞:人工智慧、人工智慧醫療、醫療糾紛、刑事責任、智 慧醫療倫理準則、大數據、個人資料保護、深度學習、黑箱醫療、容許風險
 
Abstract

Artificial intelligence brings brand new vitality into the development of medicine. The traditional medical care model can no longer meet the needs of the development of social process, and therefore artificial intelligence becomes a bridge connecting the future medical care model. The coexistence of human doctors and e-health has appeared! Along with the investment of e-health into clinical medical care, it must change the interaction a lot between patients and doctors in the future, and breeds many legal problems.
The current e-health still plays a supporting role only, so that the interaction between doctors and e-health has an obvious principal and subordinate relationship. In theory, according to the professional experiences of doctors, they cannot rely solely on the e-health system. However, under the circumstance where e-health is in full swing, the medical ecology has undergone major changes, and many legal disputes may arise. Doctors do confront with various legal risks, and, among those risks, the criminal risks that may be triggered are more important from a doctor’s position. This article explains the application fields of e-health and their characteristics, and proposes “the ethics guidelines for e-health” that shall be followed while using it as well as the criminal risks that may exist while violating it and the measure to cope with.